Monday, 16 February 2015
Saturday, 20 September 2014
Improving community resilience through nature based solutions in Kenya
Boka – situated in the North Eastern region of Keya - in our grandmothers time provided the only water resource for all pastoralist communities in a vast dryland area of over 200 km2. The Boka wells and rainy seasons offered enough water for people and cattle and there were no conflicts of any significance. Problems that did surface were dealt with by the council of elders.
After independence a disconnect developed between the new legal systems governing water, land management, other jurisdictions and the old traditional system of the council of elders dealing with these issues. Population was growing, so were the numbers of livestock. Climate change caused an increasing numbers of droughts which caused water scarcity and conflicts over access to water.
These conflicts often came to a climax of serious fights over who can feed his animals first and there is no family that has no history of family members being killed or severly wounded in such fights. These desperate situations led to attention of donors and investments of them in water management and related themes in the area. IUCN put in place a series of interventions that repaired the disconnect between the old and new water governance systems by helping local authorities and communities formulate Bylaws that regulate access and use of water. IUCN also put Infrastructure in place to channel water from the river in the rainy season into the wells and keep them better fed than before. This all being accompanied by a series of capacity development and awareness raising activities.
Now the settled and pastoral communities in Boka can use the water resources for both human consumption and for livestock in a an organized way and satisfying all basic needs again. Any conflict is solved through dialogue and other measures foreseen in the Bylaws. The water conflicts out of the way means a huge positive change for the communities as far as health is concerned, family income, education for children and peace in the communities. More investment in water management infrastructure and local capacity development will offer even more opportunities for communities to cope with the effects of climate change and increased droughts.
Improving community resilience through nature based solutions in Uganda
Arwotngo – situated in the Northern region of Uganda - in our grandmothers time was a peaceful Parish, where people lived a simple but good life. They had ample livestock and the fertile soil provided many opportunities for agriculture. People were used to drinking milk and eating meat and vegetables. There was no indiscriminate cutting of trees and when you needed one you went to your grandfather to ask for permission. There were no conflicts of any significance. Problems that did surface were dealt with by the council of elders.
In the nineteen seventies things began to change. Tribes with weapons started to rob us from our livestock. Women were raped. Children were abducted and never returned. Then all out war started. There was little food. When the LRA entered the stage things became even worse. In 2002 all people fled from the rural areas to Lira, where we lived in refugee camps depended on International Relief Aid. Outside the camps it was not safe. Inside we barely survived. In 2005 things began to improve and the first community members went back to their homes. In 2008 the majority was back.
Life in the camp was bad, but returning home was maybe worse. We had no international support anymore, we had no housing, no food no nothing. So people started to cut trees to cultivate crops and sell charcoal to the trucks that came from Lira to collect the fuel. Wetland were turned into rice paddies. There was a lot of domestic violence, we were constantly struggling for money. Water points were shared between people and livestock, there was no sanitation causing a range of health issues. Wetlands were drained and during droughts we had almost no water and in the rainy season the rivers flooded our crops. Then IUCN came. First we thought they were going to grab our land, as we were growing rice in the wetlands. Later we realized they meant well with us as they gave us small sums of money we could use to buy seedlings.
We established a relationship of trust and they taught us saving, agro-forestry, the use of fruit trees, e.g. the shea nut tree. They started conservation fund from which we could borrow money to improve our income, on the condition that we participated in their water management activities by demarcating riverbanks, fencing water points, organizing ourselves to formulate by-laws etc. Very soon we saw the positive results: more and better quality water, more income for households, more peace at home, no more tree cutting, less floods. Now we have a much more positive vision for the future and we feel we can cope better with extreme droughts and floods.
In Kenya the land and water management changes did not really affect business as usual in the community. The men continued to be pastoralists, their women looked after their families, they started jointly a garden to diversify their livelihoods. The behavior change of community members was driven by the harsh experience of two years of extreme drought: no water for people and cattle. The pain of changing was far less than the pain of not changing. Improving and co-managing the water resources, especially by integrating the traditional governance systems was not a painful change. The only big change was the increased role of women in managing the resources and the new phenomenon of girls going to school (a consequence of the new position of their mothers). A pain that men at last could deal with.
In Uganda a similar strategy to technically improve land and water management, diversify livelihoods, strengthen self governance and learning did not work automatically. People were not interested to participate in the IUCN project. In the end they asked for a community revolving fund for small loans as a condition to participate in the project. Here the pain of changing without the fund would have been far bigger than the pain of not changing. Giving up their charcoal burning and rice paddies without an alternative would mean no income. In the camps they had learned to trade and set up small businesses, in the fund they saw the opportunity to use these skills and have a source of income for the short term. Fortunately IUCN was flexible enough to adapt their strategy. Then the change in the community started to develop along similar lines as in Kenya.
In both countries women were driven by values as self-direction (they saw the opportunity to become more independent) and security (they realized the importance of diversification of livelihoods). The men were driven by tradition (the by laws gave a new impetus to the traditional governance intstitutions such as the Council of Elders). These values proved stronger for both men and women than the values underpinning their behavior before the project came. For men driving values had been power (men are the owners of the cattle and that was more important for them than anything else) and hedonism (easy life). The behavior of the women was mostly driven by conformity (obedience). To upscale the project it is important to take into account the driving values of current and desired behavior.
Friday, 8 August 2014
We asked groups of staffs of provincial Environmental agencies and school principles in Guiyang:
Choose in your group one environmental problem and then:
- Identify a desirable alternative behavior
- Identify factors that will promote this desired behavior
- Identify existing values that could be used to promote this desired behavior
- Identify and explain good communication strategies
- Identify target population segment and message content for each segment
- Craft message
- Identify delivery mechanism/medium/media
- What other persuasive strategies could be used to address the problem? Think about:
- Social influence
- Use of commitment
- Removing material barriers
We asked groups of staffs of provincial Environmental Agencies and School Principles in our conservation psychology workshop in Guiyang:
- Identify up to four key environmental problems in your local area, including around your school. For each problem:
- Identify and explain the behaviors that lead to those problems?
- What factors motivate such behaviors? Why do people behave the way they do vis-à-vis that problem?
- How does existing cultural values shape these behaviors?
- What other reasons for the existence of such problems?
Sunday, 3 August 2014
This is what I learned from Stanley Asah in our workshops on conservation psychology. Human values are transsituational goals of varied importance, that serve as guiding principles in people’s personal life and in the life of their society.Values are goals or deep rooted beliefs. They pertain to a desirable end state or mode of conduct. Values transcend specific situations. Depending on the person some values are more important than other values. People have individual systems or patterns of value priorities.
Values are acquired through socialization with dominant group values and personal experiences. Values are relatively very stable, much more than attitudes, cultural influences, worldviews, perceptions or influences from the social environment. Individual value priority systems determine one’s identity and behavior. Values interact sometimes in conflicting ways.
Ultimately values drive people’s behavior, serve their interests, are standards for judging others, and enable people to cope with reality through transforming existential necessities into expressible specific values to facilitate communicative action. Values are responses to our needs as biological organisms, for coordinated social interaction, for the smooth functioning and survial of social entities.
Universal human values are salient motivations towards the following different end goals:
1. Power – social status and prestige, control or dominance over people or resources (the end goals is authority and or wealth)
2. Achievement – personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards (the end goal is to be successful, capable)
3. Hedonism – pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself (the end goal is to have pleasure, enjoying life)
4. Stimulation – Excitement, novelty and challenge in life (the end goals is to have a daring, varied life)
5. Self-direction – independent through choosing action, creating, exploring (the end goal is creativity, freedom, curiosity)
6. Universalism – understand, appreciate, tolerate and protect the welfare of all people and nature (the end goals is equality, justice, protecting the environment)
7. Benevolence – preserve and enhance the welfare of people with whom one is frequent personal contact (the end goal is to be helpful, honest, forgiving)
8. Tradition – respect, commit to and accept the custums and ideas of traditional culture and/or religion (the end goals is to be humble, devout)
9. Conformity – restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others, violate social expectations or norms (the end goals is politeness and obedience)
10. Security – safety, harmony, and stability of society of relationships and of self (the end goal is compliance with social order)
11. Meaning – find meaning in life, spiritual life, inner harmony (the end goal is spiritualiy).
Saturday, 21 June 2014
MomentUs, launched in January 2013, is a new strategic organizing and communications initiative designed to build a game-changing increase in personal and institutional support for climate change solutions by using local and regional impacts and preparedness to engage the breadth of the American public in mitigation. They just published BEYONDSTORMS & DROUGHTS: The Psychological Impacts of Climate Change.
A summary is published here. For this blog I selected some key excerpts from the main text:
Understanding Climate Change
One reason why people may not accept or act on climate change is that the problem is often perceived as global, distant, and difficult to understand.
Learning about the local effects of climate change can make climate change more tangible and thus make people more likely to accept it as a reality.
Experiencing the effects of climate change sometimes makes people more likely to accept climate change, although psychological factors and people’s worldviews and ideologies can complicate this link.
Helping people understand the psychological impacts of climate change could be one way to increase people's willingness to respond to the issue.
Different Types of Climate Impacts: Disasters vs. Gradual Effects
Disasters onset at a specific point in time and are often highly visible. Examples of disasters include floods, hurricanes, wildfires, heat waves, and droughts.
Gradual effects build up over time and are harder to observe. Gradual effects include: slow changes in mean temperature, humidity and dew point; sea level rise; spread of disease; changes in agricultural conditions and associated increases in food insecurity; changes in natural landscapes, changes in land use and habitation and associated increases in numbers of displaced people; ecosystem disruptions; increased air pollution; and decreased availability of fresh water.
Impacts on Mental health
Some of climate change’s impacts on mental health will come about from the direct and immediate physical impacts of climate change. Others will come about as a result of climate change’s more gradual impacts on the environment, human systems and infrastructure.
Some of the key impacts of climate change on mental health include:
Trauma, Shock, Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Complicated grief, Severe reactions, such as PTSD, Strains on social relationships, Substance abuse, Mental health emergencies, Sense of loss, Hopelessness, fatalism, and resignation, Loss of autonomy and sense of control, Loss of personal and occupational identity.
Drought is a special case of natural disaster that can have particular effects due to the drought’s potential to impact people’s livelihoods, especially farmers’.
Women, children, and older adults may be especially susceptible to some mental health impacts.
Experiencing adversity from climate impacts is not inevitable. In some cases, adversity can result in personal and psychological growth, a phenomenon known as post-traumatic growth.
Tips to prepare and strengthen communities
Planners, policymakers, and other leaders may have experience preparing for the physical impacts of climate change. However, they may be less well-equipped to plan for psychological impacts. Here are 9 tips that planners, policymakers, and other organizations can use as they prepare for and respond to the impacts of climate change:
1. Strengthen community and social networks.
2. Involve and inform the community.
3. Encourage residents to incorporate mental health into existing disaster preparation efforts.
4. Develop trusted and action-focused warning systems.
5. Pay special attention to vulnerable populations.
6. Create a sense of safety, calm, and hope.
7. Foster optimism.
8. Shore up infrastructure to mediate psychological effects.
9. Be sensitive to the needs of displaced people.
Thursday, 19 June 2014
La traducción al español del curso estratégico de comunicación en línea gratis está disponible en www.frogleaps.org. La traducción fue realizada por Juanita Castaño, científica social y miembro de la CEC. Juanita ha tenido una larga carrera en el trabajo para el desarrollo sostenible de las organizaciones nacionales e internacionales y, últimamente como directora del PNUMA en Nueva York.
Sunday, 8 June 2014
Saturday, 7 June 2014
Thursday, 5 June 2014
One reason e.g. being that after all this years of sustainability leadership investments, I ask myself: in which positions did these students finally land, where can we see the impact? And people Ghandi never were trained as leader nor did he like to be a leader, however hundreds of thousands wanted to follow him. So I was very pleased when a few weeks ago I saw this on the net about thought leadership. For me we should - like Lao Tse - not talk about leadership but about wisdom.